The hormone insulin secreted into the blood by cells in the pancreas called Langerhans Islands “the name after the scientist Paul Langerhans who discovered it.” It secretes insulin, which is responsible for regulating the level of glucose in the blood and the decrease in the hormone insulin in the blood leads to an increase in the level of glucose in the blood, As we can find the average person:
- For a person fasting : from 72 to 99 mg/dL
- Two hours after eating : Up to 140 mg/dL
Types of diabetes :
The first type, It is the complete inability of the cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin, and this type often affects a person since childhood(Juvenile Diabetes), and genetic factors play a large role in it. The current treatment for this type is to give insulin externally, via subcutaneous injection.
The second type, is not completely dependent on external insulin, so that the cells of the pancreas are activated to secrete an adequate amount of insulin sufficient to control blood glucose levels, and this type often affects adults and the elderly. And it has many reasons, such as consuming sweets and drinks that contain sugar in excess or the inability of the pancreatic cells to secrete enough insulin and this type of diabetes can be treated with pancreatic cells stimulant tablets.
Symptoms of diabetes :
- The speed of thirst, and the patient drinks large quantities of water to compensate for the loss through urination.
- Increase in the number of times you urinate and go to the bathroom due to an increase in the level of sugar in the body
- Blurred vision
- Constant feeling of tiredness, dizziness and fatigue.
- Diabetics suffer from slow wound healing.
- Foot swelling in some cases and the appearance of ulcers in what is known as “diabetic foot.”
- The breathing is fast and deep.
The most important characteristic of a sugar coma before its occurrence and during the coma is the smell of acetone from the patient’s mouth.
- Eye injury with retinopathy and cataract
- Kidney injury kidney failure
- High cholesterol and blood pressure
- Chronic ulcer foot injury (diabetic foot)
- Inflammation of the nerves of the legs, hands and eyes
Therefore, the blood sugar level must be maintained to avoid the occurrence of such complications as blindness.
The reason is the low level of glucose in the blood as a result of consuming a large amount of insulin or that the patient did not eat after injecting insulin or exerting a severe muscle effort that led to a decrease in the level of glucose in the blood.
Symptoms, cold sweat, fast and weak pulse, feeling hungry and general weakness.
Treatment, The patient is given anything that contains sugar, such as sugar syrup, a piece of chocolate, or bags containing glucose, and this is if the patient is awake, but if he is unconscious, it must to go to the nearest hospital.